National Health Mission

Post Name : National Health Mission , Objective, Features, Components, and Impact
Post Date :  10 May , 2024
Post Description : The National Health Mission (NHM) is a Government of India effort that aims to provide all residents with accessible, affordable, and high-quality healthcare services, particularly those living in rural and remote areas. Established in 2005, NHM has played an important role in resolving numerous healthcare concerns and improving health indicators across the country.

Objectives of National Health Mission (NHM)

  1. Universal Healthcare Access:

    • Ensure equitable access to healthcare services for all individuals, regardless of socio-economic status or geographical location.
  2. Improving Health Infrastructure:

    • Strengthen healthcare infrastructure, including hospitals, primary health centers (PHCs), and community health centers (CHCs), to enhance service delivery.
  3. Human Resource Development:

    • Develop a skilled workforce of healthcare professionals and community health workers to effectively address the healthcare needs of the population.
  4. Preventive Healthcare:

    • Promote preventive healthcare measures such as immunization, maternal and child health services, and disease control programs to reduce the burden of preventable illnesses.
  5. Promotion of Maternal and Child Health:

    • Ensure maternal and child health services reach every corner of the country to reduce maternal and infant mortality rates.
  6. Control of Communicable Diseases:

    • Implement strategies for the prevention and control of communicable diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, and vector-borne diseases.
  7. Non-Communicable Disease Management:

    • Strengthen healthcare systems for the management and prevention of non-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and cancer.

Components of National Health Mission

  1. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM):

    • Focuses on improving healthcare services in rural areas and promoting community participation in health initiatives.
  2. National Urban Health Mission (NUHM):

    • Extends healthcare services to urban areas and improves healthcare infrastructure in cities and towns.
  3. National Disease Control Programs:

    • Implements disease-specific control programs targeting major health challenges such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and vector-borne diseases.
  4. National Health Programs:

    • Includes various national health programs focusing on specific health issues and population groups.
  5. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY):

    • Aims to reduce maternal and infant mortality rates by promoting institutional deliveries and providing financial assistance to pregnant women.
  6. Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY):

    • Provides health insurance coverage to below-poverty-line families for cashless treatment in empaneled hospitals.
  7. Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY):

    • Aims to provide health coverage for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization to vulnerable families.

Implementation Mechanisms of National Health Mission

  1. State Health Mission (SHM):

    • Oversees NHM activities at the state level and coordinates with various stakeholders.
  2. District Health Mission (DHM):

    • Ensures efficient delivery of healthcare services, monitors health indicators, and addresses local health challenges at the district level.
  3. Community Participation:

    • Emphasizes community involvement in healthcare decision-making through Village Health and Sanitation Committees (VHSCs) and Urban Health Committees (UHCs).
  4. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs):

    • Encourages partnerships with the private sector to leverage resources and expertise in healthcare service delivery.
  5. Monitoring and Evaluation:

    • Implements robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to track progress, assess impact, and make data-driven decisions.

Achievements of National Health Mission

  1. Reduction in Maternal and Child Mortality:

    • Increased institutional deliveries, improved antenatal care, and child immunization coverage have contributed to declines in maternal and child mortality rates.
  2. Expansion of Health Infrastructure:

    • Establishment and upgradation of healthcare facilities have enhanced access to essential healthcare services in rural and urban areas.
  3. Control of Communicable Diseases:

    • Disease control programs have made significant strides in preventing and managing diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS.
  4. Promotion of Health Insurance:

    • Initiatives like RSBY and PMJAY have expanded health insurance coverage, providing financial protection to vulnerable populations.
  5. Empowerment of Women and Communities:

    • Programs like JSY have promoted maternal health, while community participation has increased through VHSCs and UHCs.

Challenges and Way Forward for National Health Mission

  1. Healthcare Infrastructure:

    • Strengthening healthcare infrastructure, especially in remote areas, is essential for universal access to quality healthcare.
  2. Human Resources:

    • Addressing shortages of healthcare professionals through recruitment, training, and retention strategies is crucial.
  3. Health Financing:

    • Ensuring adequate funding and promoting financial sustainability through innovative financing mechanisms are necessary.
  4. Quality of Care:

    • Enhancing the quality of healthcare services through standards, protocols, and improved clinical skills is important.
  5. Health Information Systems:

    • Strengthening health information systems for better data collection, analysis, and monitoring is vital for evidence-based decision-making.

The National Health Mission plays a pivotal role in improving healthcare accessibility, affordability, and quality for all citizens of India. With continued efforts and collaboration, it will further contribute to the health and well-being of the population, fostering a healthier and more prosperous nation.

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